Tipos de documentos usados en proyectos y obras de construcción


Types of Documents for Construction Management: a Practical Guide

In the construction world, efficient document management is crucial for the success of projects. From architectural plans to progress reports and contracts, a large amount of documentation needs to be organized, stored and shared effectively.

All team collaborators in construction projects can benefit from working with a digital document management system. For example, professionals responsible for project planning can instantly access updated plans and technical specifications for better decision-making. Also, those in charge of progress tracking and reporting can have access to up-to-date reports.

In this article, we will explore the most common types of documents needed in construction projects and how the adoption of digital management systems can revolutionize the way the industry works with such documents.

Planning and Design Documentation

Planning and design documentation is crucial for establishing the foundations and guidelines of a construction project. This includes a variety of documents that provide detailed information on spatial layout, structural, electrical, and plumbing aspects, as well as technical specifications and a general description of the project. With all this into account, a digital system ensures that construction is carried out according to the intentions and requirements of the original design.

  • Architectural plans: These plans are detailed graphical representations that show the spatial distribution of the project, including dimensions, the location of functional areas, the arrangement of doors and windows, and other architectural details. They provide a visual guide for construction and are used by architects, interior designers, and contractors.
  • Structural plans: These plans describe the building’s structure, including the foundation, columns, beams, slabs, and other structural elements. They provide crucial information to ensure the stability and strength of the building and are used by structural engineers and contractors.
  • Electrical plans: These plans detail the distribution of electrical systems in the project, including the location of light fixtures, switches, outlets, and wiring. They are used by electricians and electrical contractors for the installation and connection of electrical systems.
  • Plumbing Plans: These plans describe the location and layout of pipes, connections, and drains of the building’s plumbing system. They are used by plumbers and plumbing contractors for the installation and connection of water and drainage systems.
  • Technical specifications: These documents establish the technical requirements and quality standards for materials, components, and execution of the work. They include details about the materials to be used, construction techniques, tolerances, and applicable regulations. They are used by architects, engineers, and contractors to ensure that materials and execution meet the established standards.
  • Descriptive memorandum report: This documentation provides a detailed description of the project, including its objectives, main features, construction solutions, and relevant technical aspects. It is used to convey the overall vision of the project and specific requirements to the different actors involved in the construction.

Contracting and Budget Documentation

Contracting and budget documentation plays a crucial role in the financial and contractual management of construction projects. It provides key information for establishing agreements, controlling costs, and ensuring compliance with contractual obligations. Below are briefly described some of document types used in these areas:

  • Contracts and agreements: Contracts and agreements establish the terms and conditions of the business relationships between the parties involved in the project. These documents define responsibilities, deadlines, payments, and special clauses that were established for the project’s execution.
  • Budget and estimates: The budget and estimates documents provide a detailed financial overview of the project. These documents contain estimated costs for materials, labor, equipment, and other expenses related to the project, allowing for effective financial planning and cost tracking over time.
  • Purchase orders: Purchase orders are documents issued to request and authorize the acquisition of materials or services necessary for the project. Purchase orders define the details of the requested products or services, prices, quantities, and delivery dates.
  • Work orders: Work orders are documents used to authorize and assign specific tasks to team members. These documents outline the scope of work, deadlines, and any specific instructions or requirements for completing the tasks.
  • Payment documentation: Invoices and invoices and payments record the financial details of transactions made during the project. These documents reflect payments made to suppliers, contractors, and subcontractors, providing a clear record of financial transactions.
  • Bidding Documents: Bidding documents are used in the supplier or contractor selection process. These documents specify information about project requirements, deadlines, bidding conditions, and evaluation criteria, as detailed in our article construction bidding.
  • Warranties and insurance: Warranty and insurance documents are used to ensure the protection of financial and contractual interests These documents define the required warranties and necessary insurance coverage to mitigate the risks associated with the project.
  • Change Orders and contract modifications: Documenting change orders and contract modifications are required to keep a record of original contractual terms and new ones. These records help to keep an up-to-date history of modified contractual agreements throughout the project.
  • Subcontracting contracts: Subcontracting contracts establish the terms and conditions for hiring third parties to perform specific work within the project. These types of contracts detail responsibilities, deadlines, payments, and other relevant conditions.
  • Withholding and upfront payment records: Retention and advance payment records track any disbursements made or money that were withheld in advance to suppliers, contractors, and subcontractors according to the agreed-upon contractual terms.
  • Contract closeout: Contract closure reports document the final financial settlement process and contract closure once all project activities have been completed These reports include the final cost reporting, outstanding payments, and any other financial aspects related to the project.

Types of Construction Progress Reports

Construction monitoring reports provide a detailed view of the progress of the construction work progress, costs, quality, safety, and other relevant aspects of the project. Real-time digital project management of these reports is highly beneficial for decision-making purposes.

Below are brief descriptions of different types of construction work progress reports:

  • Works schedule: The work schedule is a report that establishes the sequence and duration of planned activities in the project. It provides a detailed timeline of tasks to be performed, estimated deadlines, and dependencies between them.
  • Progress reports: Progress reports are needed to record and evaluate the actual progress of the project compared to the established plan. These reports describe completed activities, milestones achieved, problems encountered, and corrective actions taken.
  • Cost control reports: Cost control reports provide up-to-date information on the actual and projected costs of the project. These reports allow for evaluating financial performance and making informed decisions to keep the project within budgetary limits.
  • Quality reports: Quality reports assess compliance with established quality standards and requirements for the project. These reports document inspections conducted, results obtained, and corrective measures implemented to ensure work quality.
  • Safety reports: Safety reports record workplace safety-related activities. These reports document incidents, identified risks, preventive measures, and actions taken to ensure a safe environment for workers and involved parties.
  • Final reports: Final reports are documents that summarize the outcome and achievements of the project upon completion. These reports compile information about goal attainment, results obtained, challenges overcome, and lessons learned throughout the project’s lifecycle.

Legal and Regulatory Documents

Legal and regulatory documentation in construction projects is vital to ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards.

Licenses and permit documents are necessary to obtain the required authorizations from relevant authorities. These documents demonstrate that the project complies with legal and regulatory requirements concerning zoning, land use, environmental impact, and safety, among others.

Examples of licenses and permits documents include construction permits, occupancy licenses, demolition permits, and environmental authorizations.

By leveraging the advantages of digital tools, construction companies can enhance productivity, collaboration, and compliance, resulting in successful projects and satisfied clients. Without a doubt, digital document management has become an essential tool in the 21st-century construction industry.

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